music programming text book

bits and bit strings


    Representing bit strings in a computer.

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stub section

    This subchapter is a stub section. It will be filled in with instructional material later. For now it serves the purpose of a place holder for the order of instruction.

    Professors are invited to give feedback on both the proposed contents and the propsed order of this text book. Send commentary to Milo, PO Box 1361, Tustin, California, 92781, USA.

bits and bit strings

    This subchapter is about the data types of bits and bit strings.


    The following material is from the unclassified Computer Programming Manual for the JOVIAL (J73) Language, RADC-TR-81-143, Final Technical Report of June 1981.

    The kinds of values provided by JOVIAL reflect the applications
    of the language; they are oriented toward engineering and contrl
    programming rather than, for example, commercial and business
    programming.  The JOVIAL values are:
    4.  Bit-string values, which are sequences of binary digits
        (bits).  They are used for communication with "on-off"
        devices or to control parts of the program itself.  For
        example, a bit-string could be used to represent
        settings of switches on a control console.

    Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION, page 2

         ITEM CONTROLS B 10;   A bit-string item, whose value is a
                               sequence of ten bits.  Thus it can
                               accommodate, for example, the settings
                               of ten on/off console switches.

    Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION, page 5


    Bit declarations:

    type of data: logical

    S/360, S/370 data format: bit (1 to 8 bits per byte)

    default length: none

    maximum length: 8000 bits for constants
    32767 bits for variables



    Bit strings are stored from left to right, padded to the right with zero bits.

free music player coding example

    Coding example: I am making heavily documented and explained open source code for a method to play music for free — almost any song, no subscription fees, no download costs, no advertisements, all completely legal. This is done by building a front-end to YouTube (which checks the copyright permissions for you).

    View music player in action:

    Create your own copy from the original source code/ (presented for learning programming).

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free computer programming text book project

Building a free downloadable text book on computer programming for university, college, community college, and high school classes in computer programming.

If you like the idea of this project,
then please donate some money.

send donations to:
PO Box 1361
Tustin, California 92781

Supporting the entire project:

    If you have a business or organization that can support the entire cost of this project, please contact Pr Ntr Kmt (my church)

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Some or all of the material on this web page appears in the
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    †UNIX used as a generic term unless specifically used as a trademark (such as in the phrase “UNIX certified”). UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries, licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Ltd.

    Names and logos of various OSs are trademarks of their respective owners.

    Copyright © 2010, 2012 Milo

    Created: December 11, 2010

    Last Updated: September 20, 2012

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