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passwd

summary

    This subchapter looks at passwd, a Unix (and Linux) command.

    This subchapter also includes the list of the 100 worst (most commonly used) passwords.

    As mentioned in the previous subchapter, you should change your password from the original default or assigned password to a secure password that nobody else knows. And please don’t leave the new password on a sticky note attached to your computer.

syntax:

passwd [options…] [user]
shells:ashbashbshcshkshshtcshzsh
File Name:passwdDirectory:/usr/bin/Type:External

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passwd

    This subchapter looks at passwd, a Unix (and Linux) command.

    passwd is used to change your password.

    This subchapter also includes the list of the 100 worst passwords (100 most commonly used passwords).

setting your password

    Type passwd followed by the ENTER or RETURN key.

    $ passwd

    You will be prompoted to give your current (old) password (to make sure it is really you) and then prompted to enter your new password twice. For security purposes, the password is typically replaced with asterisks or some other character so that nobody can read your password over your shoulder. To make sure that you have typed what you thought you typed you are asked to type the new password twice. The two copies must match before your new password replaces your old password.

local password

    The password set by passwd is your local password. On a single user system, this is probably your only password.

    On Mac OS X the use of the passwd may or may not be sufficient to change your password for the entire system. This depends on which version of Mac OS X you are using. It is best to change your password using the install disc. If you do not have a copy of the install disc, there are instructions on the internet on how to manually change the password.

    On a large system, there may be multiple passwords spread across multiple computers. The passwd command will only change the password on the one server that you are currently logged into (normally through SSH). You may need to use yppasswd or a web interface to change your password for the entire system.

    You can check for your account or username in /etc/passwd. If it’s not listed there, then don’t use the passwd. Check with your system administrator.

periodic changes

    Whenever you first login into a new system, the first thing you should do is change your password. In particular, immediately change the initial root password for a new system. Leaving the initial default password is a huge security hole and hackers do try all of the standard default passwords to see if they can find an easy way into a computer. Even with a user account, it is common for initial passwords to be generated poorly and be easy for hackers to guess.

    Additionally, you want to change your password on a regular basis. It only takes a few months to figure out a password through brute force attacks. Some systems require that you change your password on a regular basis. Once a month is a good time period. More often if you suspect that someone saw you typing or there is any other possibility that your password might have been compromised.

    You can set up your account to remind you to change your password on a regular basis. If you are the system administrator, you can set up these reminders for everyone (and should do so). As system administrator you can even require that users change their passwords on a regular basis (or they become locked out and have to come to you to beg for re-entry). As system administrator you can also set up a system that requires (or even suggests) secure passwords.

100 most common passwords

    Always avoid the common passwords. These are the most common passwords as of June 2012:

  1. password
  2. 123456
  3. 12345678
  4. 1234
  5. qwerty
  6. 12345
  7. dragon
  8. pussy
  9. baseball
  10. football
  11. letmein
  12. monkey
  13. 696969
  14. abc123
  15. mustang
  16. michael
  17. shadow
  18. master
  19. jennifer
  20. 111111
  21. 2000
  22. jordan
  23. superman
  24. harley
  25. 1234567
  26. trustno1
  27. iloveyou
  28. sunshine
  29. ashley
  30. bailey
  31. passw0rd
  32. 123123
  33. 654321
  34. qazwsx
  35. Football
  36. seinfeld
  37. princess
  38. peanut
  39. ginger
  40. tigger
  41. fuckme
  42. hunter
  43. fuckyou
  44. ranger
  45. buster
  46. thomas
  47. robert
  48. soccer
  49. fuck
  50. batman
  51. test
  52. pass
  53. killer
  54. hockey
  55. babygirl
  56. george
  57. charlie
  58. andrew
  59. michelle
  60. love
  61. jessica
  62. asshole
  63. 6969
  64. pepper
  65. lovely
  66. daniel
  67. access
  68. 123456789
  69. joshua
  70. maggie
  71. starwars
  72. silver
  73. william
  74. dallas
  75. yankees
  76. 666666
  77. hello
  78. amanda
  79. orange
  80. biteme
  81. freedom
  82. computer
  83. sexy
  84. nicole
  85. thunder
  86. heather
  87. hammer
  88. summer
  89. corvette
  90. taylor
  91. fucker
  92. austin
  93. 1111
  94. merlin
  95. matthew
  96. 121212
  97. golfer
  98. cheese
  99. martin
  100. chelsea

    Approximately 4.7% of all users have a password of password. 8.5% have one of the top two passwords. 9.8% (nearly one tenth) have one of the three top passwords. 14% have one of the top 10 passwords. 40% have one of the top 100 passwords. 79% have one of the top 500 passwords. 91% have one of the top 1,000 passwords.

secure passwords

    It is important to have secure passwords.

    The more characters, the more secure. A minimum of six or eight characters is barely adequate.

    A strong mixture of characters for a password includes at least one capital letter, at least one lower case letter, at least on digit, and at least one punctuation character. You should avoid repeating any character more than once in the same password. The special character (such as !@#$%^&*,;) should not be th efirst or last character in the password.

    Avoid using any word that occurs in your own or any other natural langauge. Hackers use a dictionary attack that tries words from the dictionary. Also avoid spelling words backwards, using common misspellings, or using abbreviations. Avoid using dates that are important to you (someone can easily look up your birthday or anniversary on the world wide web). Avoid using names of family, friends, or even pets.

secure technique

    A technique that generates decent passwords is to use a key phrase and then use the first letter of each word in the keyword. Sprinkle in digits and special characters (punctuation) and make some of the letters upper case and some lower case.

    Never use the same password for more than one purpose. People have the tendency to reuse the same password over and over. If a hacker gets your password from one system, the hacker will see if it also works on your bank account and other systems.

superuser

    The super user (root) can use the passwd command to reset any other user’s password. There is no prompt for the current (old) password.

    $ passwd username

    The super user (root) can also remove a password for a specific user with the -d option. The disable option then allows the specified user to login without a password. This applies to Linux and Solaris only.

    $ passwd -d username

other

    On November 8, 2010, Ramesh Natarajan named this the number 34 most frequently used Unix/Linux command at this web page 50 Most Frequently Used UNIX / Linux Commands (With Examples).


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    Copyright © 2012, 2014 Milo

    Created: February 13, 2012

    Last Updated: August 13, 2014


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